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WVDL Testing Improvements to Salmonella Dublin PCR

Salmonella Dublin real-time PCR testing improvements at WVDL

 

Upon examination of the gene target for the Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Dublin real-time PCR, the WVDL discovered that the gene can now be harbored in E. coli.  From the literature, it appears that the gene may have been recently (<6 mo.) taken up by E. coli.  At this time, the WVDL does not know the prevalence of this gene in coliform bacteria identified in fecal and tissue samples.  Our case load analysis suggests that it is low (3-6% of tests on fecal and tissue samples per year).  Currently, we have identified only a single E. coli isolate carrying this gene, but we are performing additional analysis to determine if more E. coli harbor this target gene.

Because Salmonella ser. Dublin diagnosis on a farm has a high consequence, we want to be 100% sure that the PCR test is indeed detecting Salmonella ser. Dublin and NOT detecting an E. coli or other coliform bacteriaTherefore, effective 6/27/2018, the WVDL will NOT report presumed positive Salmonella ser. Dublin real-time PCR results without confirmatory testing with conventional PCR.  Negative Salmonella ser. Dublin results will be reported, as this observation does not affect negative results.  All presumed positive real-time PCR results will be confirmed using a confirmatory test and both results reported.  Preliminary results will be reported and, as always, available 24/7 on our client portal on our website:  www.wvdl.wisc.edu.

Our goal is to have the confirmatory conventional PCR test validated in July of 2018.  Presumed positive Salmonella ser. Dublin PCR results will remain pending until the confirmatory testing is completed. Once the conventional PCR is validated, the additional testing will likely cause a 24-48 hour delay on Salmonella ser. Dublin PCR results until a new real-time Salmonella ser. Dublin PCR assay is adapted.  We anticipate this process to take 2-3 months.

We apologize for the delay and any inconvenience this may create for you and your clients.  We appreciate your business and continued patronage as we work to improve this test.  If you have any questions, please see our website or contact us at any time.

 

Guidelines for Large Animal Euthanasia and Disposal

Guidelines for Large Animal Euthanasia & Disposal

(Provided by UW School of Veterinary Medicine)

 

Background:  Federal regulations and vendor policies exist prohibiting the use of barbiturates in euthanasia of equine and bovine species disposed of by rendering or landfill.

Species affected and disposal options: Pigs, foals and calves may be disposed of by incineration, rendering or digestion. Small ruminants are disposed of by digestion. Adult horses may be disposed of by rendering (necessitating euthanasia by something other than barbiturate overdose), or digestion. Digestion is an option when barbiturates are used (costs > $0.50/pound).

In bovines aged 30-60 months, at a minimum the brain and spinal tissue need to be digested. For bovines greater than 60 months of age, the entire carcass needs to be digested.

Alternative Chemical Euthanasia Protocols: Equine and Bovine Patients

 Note #1: These are suggested doses and agents – every patient is unique and doses of each agent may need to be adjusted according to clinical indication and the safety of personnel involved in the procedure. For example, very-compromised animals may need lower doses; on the other hand, extremely excited or stressed animals may need higher doses.

Note #2: The use of potassium chloride is UNACCEPTABLE in conscious animals. Refer to the AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition for further information (https://www.avma.org/KB/Policies/Documents/euthanasia.pdf).

  1. SEDATION
  • Equine: Xylazine (1.0-1.5 mg/kg IV)
  • Bovine: Xylazine (0.1-0.5 mg/kg IV)

Ensure adequate sedation (ear/head drooping, reduced muscle tone [tongue/tail/neck relaxation], reduced activity to stimuli). Then follow with:

  1. ANESTHETIC INDUCTION
  • Equine and Bovine: Ketamine (2.2-5.0 mg/kg IV) and Midazolam (0.1-0.2 mg/kg IV)

Ensure a surgical plane of anesthesia (loss of consciousness, reflexive muscle responses [lateral recumbency], and response to noxious stimuli). Then follow with:

  1. EUTHANASIA
  • Potassium chloride (75-150 mg/kg IV quickly)

Potassium Chloride (KCL) can be purchased for injection or made from salts widely available at pharmacies, grocery stores or feed mills.  In the grocery store, KCL is “Lite Table Salt.”  Check the label for ingredients.  Because it is used to euthanize an animal, it does not need to be filtered or sterilized. The dosage needed for KCL euthanasia (under anesthesia) is 75-100 mg/kg, which will require substantial volumes of KCL.  KCL as a saturated solution can be made with 35.5g of KCL in 100 mls of water.  Super-saturated solutions can be made but are difficult to maintain in solution.  Precipitated salts will clog catheters and needles (especially in cooler weather) so we do not recommend using more than a saturated solution of KCL. Always have more KCL solution than needed to ensure proper and humane euthanasia under AVMA guidelines.

ALWAYS have extra potassium chloride syringes readily available if the above is inadequate.

ALWAYS be aware of the effects associated with injected potassium solutions such as muscle twitching, tremors, and gasping.

If adequate sedation or anesthesia is NOT achieved with the above doses, additional sedation with xylazine (equine: 1.0 mg/kg IV; bovine: 0.1 mg/kg IV) or anesthesia with ketamine (2 mg/kg IV) and midazolam (0.1 mg/kg IV) may be given. ALWAYS be prepared to administer higher initial doses if there is any question.

NEVER administer potassium chloride to an animal that is not in a surgical plane of anesthesia.

  • USE OF CAPTIVE BOLT

Following sedation, as previously described, bovine patients may be euthanized by penetrating captive bolt. Personnel performing captive bolt euthanasia should be familiar with the technique as described in the AVMA guidelines for the euthanasia of animals (https://www.avma.org/KB/Policies/Documents/euthanasia.pdf).

 

Excerpts from AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals (2013):

POTASSIUM CHLORIDE AND MAGNESIUM SALTS, p. 31: ‘Personnel performing this technique must be trained and knowledgeable in anesthetic techniques, and be competent in assessing the level of unconsciousness that is required for administration of potassium chloride and magnesium salt solutions IV. Administration of potassium chloride or magnesium salt solutions IV requires animals to be in a surgical plane of anesthesia characterized by loss of consciousness, loss of reflex muscle response, and loss of response to noxious stimuli.’

RUMINANTS, p. 54: ‘While not acceptable as a sole method of euthanasia, rapid IV injection of potassium chloride may assist in ensuring death after cattle have been rendered unconscious by penetrating captive bolt, gunshot, or administration of general anesthetics (a-2 adrenergic agents such as xylazine alone are insufficient; see comments under Unacceptable methods).’

EQUINE, p. 64: ‘Although unacceptable when used in unanesthetized equids, the use of a saturated solution of potassium chloride injected IV or intracardially in an equid in a deep surgical plane of general anesthesia is an acceptable method to invoke cardiac arrest and death.’

 

 

 

Calf Maintenance in Cold Weather

Low Temperatures and Negative Energy Balance in Calves

D.C. Sockett DVM, PhD, Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory
T.J. Earleywine PhD, Director of Nutrition Land O’ Lakes Animal Milk Products

Cold weather has arrived in the upper Midwest. Calf raisers know that cold temperatures increase the calf’s maintenance requirements for energy, but many do not know that the maintenance requirements also increase for protein and fat-soluble vitamins if the calf is ill from conditions like scours and pneumonia. Optimizing nutrition of sick calves can make the difference between a dead and a healthy calf.

It is important for livestock producers and veterinarians to understand that when the ambient temperature drops to 15 °F, feeding 3 quarts of milk (12.5% total solids) or a 22% protein, 20% fat milk replacer powder (12.5% total solids) twice a day will provide an 88 lb. calf with enough nutrition for less than 0.75 lbs/day of growth.  However, if the calf is stressed further (draft, wet or dirty hair coat, develops scours, pneumonia etc.), there is insufficient energy and protein in the diet to meet the needs of the calf, and she will begin losing weight. Since calves are born with roughly 3-4% of body weight as fat, they will die if the negative energy balance continues for more than 3-5 days. Calf scours is a common problem on US dairy operations: therefore, winter feeding programs should be formulated to take into account the increased protein, fat-soluble vitamins and energy demands caused by calf scours. Also, calves should be provided with a jacket and kept in a dry, draft-free environment that is bedded with straw deep enough to cover their legs. Calves should be offered a highly palatable calf starter that is high in protein (18-22%) and energy beginning at 2-3 days of age and have access to free-choice (low sodium/not softened) warm water within 30 minutes of being fed milk or milk replacer.

Winter Feeding Program

Since ruminants do not metabolize fat as efficiently as non-ruminants, just providing more fat in the diet is the least satisfactory way of providing additional nutrition to the calf. The diet must be consistent (less than 1% daily variation in percent total solids) and have enough energy and protein so the calf can have efficient, lean growth, adequate immune function and healing of damaged tissue caused by events like scours or pneumonia. The dairy producer can pick one of the following 3 options:

  • Continue to feed the calves 3 quarts of milk or milk replacer twice a day but increase the total solids content from 12.5 to 15%. To avoid problems, producers need to work closely with their dairy calf nutritionist if they choose this option.
  • Continue feeding the calves twice a day but increase the volume of milk or milk replacer per feeding from 3 to 4 quarts.
  • Feed the calves 3 quarts of milk or milk replacer 3 times a day instead of twice a day. There should be at least a 13-14 hour interval between the first and third feeding. This is the best option because calves do better when they are fed three times a day instead of twice a day.

Update on MDR Salmonella serotype Heidelberg

Update on MDR Salmonella serotype Heidelberg Case Count

The WVDL and our state and federal collaborators would like to remind veterinarians and producers to use caution when working with animals with confirmed or suspected multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Heidelberg. To date, there are 54 confirmed human infections in 15 states (n=18 in Wisconsin; Figure 1), in which 35% (n=17) of infected people have been hospitalized and 15% (n=8) had invasive disease.  Moreover, 33% (n=18) of ill persons were under the age of 5 years.  There continues to be human infections with MDR Salmonella ser. Heidelberg (Figure 2) where 63% (n=34) reported having contact with cattle including ill dairy beef calves. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has updated their website (https://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/heidelberg-11-16/index.html) and provide several documents related to advice and information for livestock handlers, veterinarians and healthcare providers.

Figure 1: People Infected with the Outbreak Strains of Salmonella Heidelberg, by State of Residence, as of October 30, 2017 (n=54)

 

Figure 2: People Infected with the Outbreak Strains of salmonella Heidelberg, by Date of Illness Onset

 

The WVDL continues to isolate MDR Salmonella ser. Heidelberg from bovine tissues and feces.  We would like to stress the importance of cleaning and disinfection when this MDR Salmonella has been identified on a premise.  Preliminary evidence suggests that even after 1-2 years post identification of a MDR Salmonella ser. Heidelberg on a premise, we are able to culture Salmonella ser. Heidelberg from one or more locations on that premise.  Below are the number of MDR Salmonella ser. Heidelberg cases that the WVDL has identified from 2009 to 2017 (U.S. and Wisconsin maps). As expected Wisconsin has the most number of isolates at 61 with Missouri at 33 (Figure 3).  Additionally, Barron County (n=10) has the most isolates followed by Marinette and Shawano Counties (n=6 each) and Grant County (n=5) (Figure 4). The data here is a gross under estimation of the true burden of disease. The WVDL provides information about cleaning and disinfection protocols, bovine environmental sampling instructions, Salmonella molecular and culture testing options and work flow and a Salmonella ser. Heidelberg interview questionnaire on our website in the Diagnostic Aids tab.

https://www.wvdl.wisc.edu/index.php/diagnostic-aids/

 

Figure 3: Map of Salmonella ser. Heidelberg isolates by State from 2009-2017.

 

Figure 4: Map of Salmonella ser. Heidelberg isolates by Wisconsin County from 2009-2017

 

The WVDL continues to work closely with state and federal agents to make producers, veterinarians, physicians and other interested parties aware of this MDR zoonotic disease.  WVDL staff have recently given presentations at:

1) The American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians (AAVLD) Annual Conference on October 15 in San Diego, Calif. (Megin Nickels of the CDC also talked on this topic.)

2) The Inform 2017 Conference on November 8 in Garden Grove, Calif.  Additionally, a USDA veterinarian talked about preliminary data from a case control study the WVDL is participating in.

3) The One Health Symposium on November 10 in Madison, Wis.

4) The Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases (CRWAD) in Chicago, Ill. on December 5.

 

 

CDC Re-Opens Salmonella Outbreak Investigation

New human cases of Salmonellosis caused by Multi-drug Resistant (MDR) Salmonella Heidelberg spark re-opening of outbreak investigation

 

A multi-state outbreak investigation that began in July 2016 after a 16-year-old boy became ill after buying calves for a 4-H project has been re-opened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). As of August 2, 2017 there have been 46 confirmed human cases of MDR Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Heidelberg reported to the CDC and other local health officials, with ten of these cases reported since April 2017. The outbreak now spans across 14 states and has hospitalized 14 (30%) people. Two-thirds of people reported having contact with dairy bull calves or other cattle just prior to onset of symptoms. More than half of the illness in Wisconsin occurred in children under 10 years of age.

Whole genome sequencing confirmed that 33 human, 65 cattle and 11 environmental samples have multiple antimicrobial resistance genes leading to no available antimicrobial for treatment of bovine illness and few treatment options for human illness.  Whole genome sequencing of human, bovine and environmental isolates also confirmed that these strains are highly related.  There are two main variants of this Salmonella ser. Heidelberg in the cattle population and one them is highly pathogenic.  Most cases identified are from the highly pathogenic strain and in Wisconsin only the highly pathogenic strain has been identified.

Although no new human cases have been identified in Wisconsin since December 2016, the WVDL has isolated more than twice the amount of MDR Salmonella ser. Heidelberg than this time last year indicating the outbreak has not slowed in the cattle population. The WVDL continues to work closely with other state and federal officials to monitor and prevent the transmission of MDR Salmonella ser. Heidelberg from cattle to humans.

More information on this on-going investigation and to stay up-to-date on recent happenings, see the links below for several federal, state and local websites.

 

Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

https://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/heidelberg-11-16/index.html

Wisconsin Department of Health Services

https://www.dhs.wisconsin.gov/salmonella/heidelberg/index.htm

Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection

https://datcp.wi.gov/Pages/News_Media/2016.11.29_SalmonellaHeidelberg.aspx

Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory

https://www.wvdl.wisc.edu/index.php/diagnostic-aids/

 

 

 

Eastern Equine Encephalitis Strikes in West Central Wisconsin

Eastern equine encephalitis strikes in West Central Wisconsin

The following alert was issued today by Wisconsin’s Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (DATCP).

Two Quarterhorse yearling fillies from Monroe County are the first to become infected with Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) this year. One horse died and the other was euthanized.

Because EEE normally emerges in mid- to late summer and remains a threat until the first killing frost, veterinarians are encouraged to discuss vaccination and mosquito abatement with their horse owning clients.

Horses that have not already been vaccinated this year for EEE or other mosquito-borne diseases are at greater risk, but it is not too late to vaccinate.

Horses that have never been vaccinated will need two doses, two to four weeks apart, and the vaccine will take at least two weeks to build up enough antibodies to protect them. Vaccines will not protect horses that have already been infected when they receive the injections. Vaccines are available that protect against other strains of equine encephalitis along with EEE, and a separate West Nile virus vaccine is also available.

Last year, Wisconsin had 19 confirmed cases of EEE and seven cases of WNV, but there could have been many more unconfirmed cases.  Both EEE and WNV are reportable diseases, so veterinarians should notify the Division of Animal Health when a case is suspected.  EEE should be reported within one day and WNV within ten days following the reporting requirements outlined on our website:

Animal Disease Reporting Requirements

Wisconsin Poultry Producers and Interstate Movement to Iowa

LPAI Testing for Wisconsin Poultry Producers and Interstate Movement to Iowa

Purpose: The State of Iowa requires serology and PCR testing for avian influenza prior to interstate movement from Wisconsin. WVDL is setting up special testing for Wisconsin poultry producers to facilitate this movement.

Iowa is currently requiring permits for poultry and poultry products from Wisconsin to Iowa and if there are any questions, they should contact Iowa.

Here is a link to their web site: https://www.iowaagriculture.gov/animalIndustry.asp

 

Test logistics at WVDL:

  1. Serology for antibody: WVDL has the NPIP-approved test for antibody (AGID). This test is performed at the Barron Laboratory ONLY, is a 24-hour test and is set up at 2pm Mon-Thurs.
  2. PCR for virus nucleic acid: WVDL has the NPIP-approved test for AI PCR. This test is performed at the Madison Laboratory ONLY and will be set up on Mon-Fri, once per day, as special runs during the required testing period.

a. Samples must be dropped off in Madison by 10am for same day results for movement of animals the following day (8AM) to fit the requirement of 24 hours from sampling of animals to shipment. Depending on location in Wisconsin, overnight UPS shipping may be allowed for PCR testing. This will increase time to maximum of 36 hours from sampling of birds to shipment and PRODUCERS MUST contact the Iowa State Veterinarian’s office for prior approval.  Dr. David Schmitt (515) 281-8601.

b. Each PCR test (up to 11 swabs per test) will have an expedited testing fee added.

c. Please call ahead for testing so we can be prepared to accommodate your testing needs to the best of our ability.

d. Any NPIP-approved laboratory can be used for PCR testing.  The Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic lab is the next available option. Minnesota runs  PCR Mon-Fri and samples must arrive by 8am.

Testing supplies:

1. Testing supplies can be ordered at www.wvdl.wisc.edu. Under the drop-down menu from “Submission Guidelines,” click on “Forms” and “Avian Swab Kit for PCR Order Form.”

a.  https://www.wvdl.wisc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/PharyngealSwabKitOrderForm.pdf
b.  Directly under the link to this form is a video that demonstrates swabbing birds.

i. NOTE: Testing has been updated since the production of this video and NPIP now allows up to 11 swabs per tube.

2. Shipping labels can be ordered and emailed for $7 overnight ground UPS. See our website for details: https://www.wvdl.wisc.edu/index.php/shipping-information/

3. Testing and shipping supply orders can be taken over the phone, by fax, or by emailing completed forms to supplyroom@wvdl.wisc.edu. See our website for phone and fax numbers.

UW Identifies Flu Strain Affecting NYC Shelter Cats as H7N2 Influenza

CONTACT: Sandra Newbury, 608-335-2122, sandra.newbury@wisc.edu

UW Identifies Flu Strain Affecting NYC Shelter Cats as H7N2 Influenza

MADISON – The Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at the University of Wisconsin-Madison has identified the influenza A strain involved in an outbreak among cats in a New York City animal shelter as low pathogenic avian influenza H7N2, a rare subtype that has not been found previously in domestic felines.

The Shelter Medicine Program at the UW-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine is working closely with New York City’s Manhattan Animal Care Center (ACC-Manhattan) and the New York City Health Department to manage the situation, which includes establishing a quarantine facility while the Manhattan center is disinfected.

Cats that have contracted the H7N2 strain in the shelter have displayed upper respiratory symptoms such as runny nose, congestion, persistent cough and lip smacking, but the illness has not been severe. One cat was euthanized after developing pneumonia. No other species of animals from the shelter, including dogs, have tested positive for the virus.

“While we are concerned about this new infection, the cats are experiencing only mild to moderate illness, but a few have developed pneumonia,” says Sandra Newbury, clinical assistant professor at the veterinary school and director of the UW Shelter Medicine Program. “Many of the cats who were initially ill are already recovering. We do want people to be aware of what is happening, but influenza infection is unlikely in cats that have not had contact with cats from New York City’s Manhattan Animal Care Center.”

The first cases of influenza at the shelter were reported in late November when a private company, IDEXX Reference Laboratories, tested sick cats housed at ACC-Manhattan. The shelter then approached the UW Shelter Medicine Program and WVDL for more assistance since both helped manage outbreaks of a different strain of influenza that affected dogs and cats in the Midwest earlier this year and in 2015.

Further testing at WVDL found additional positive samples and led to identification of the H7N2 strain, a finding that has been verified by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Veterinary Services Laboratories. The California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory at the University of California, Davis also confirmed the presence of H7N2 influenza virus after IDEXX provided samples to that lab for testing.

“This is the first time H7N2 has been detected and transmitted among domestic cats,” says Kathy Toohey-Kurth, clinical professor and head of the WVDL’s virology section.

Several cases of H7N2 were found in commercial poultry in the United States between 2000 and 2006, and it may be able to spread to other animals. There have been only two cases of H7N2 found in humans, and both cases ended with full recovery. The virus is thought to pose low risk to people. No human infections related to this case have been identified to date.

While influenza infection is unlikely in cats that have not had contact with infected felines from the shelter, owners whose animals show signs of influenza should contact their veterinarian for instructions. Cats suspected to be infected with the virus should be housed separately from other animals and precautions should be taken to prevent spread of the virus on hands and clothing.

“We’ll continue to work with the shelter to help manage the case and offer testing to any cats in rescue groups that are affected,” says Newbury. “We are hoping that offering this kind of diagnostic support will help rescue groups identify if they have cats with the virus so they can isolate them in order to stop the spread.”

Diagnostic testing conducted by the WVDL for animals that have come from the New York City shelter since Nov. 12 will be paid for by a generous gift from Maddie’s Fund, a family foundation that seeks to “revolutionize the status and well-being of companion animals.”

Shelters and rescue groups may contact the UW Shelter Medicine Program at uwsheltermedicine@vetmed.wisc.edu with testing inquiries or questions regarding influenza in cats and dogs, and can look for updates at www.uwsheltermedicine.com. More details about the program’s partnership to provide diagnostic testing for shelters can be found on its diagnostic testing webpage.

# # #

-Nik Hawkins, nik.hawkins@wisc.edu, 608-263-6914

Increased Awareness for Multi-drug Resistant Salmonella Heidelberg Infections

Notice of Increased Awareness for Multi-drug Resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Heidelberg

High zoonotic potential for farm workers, especially children

Recently, the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (WVDL), the Wisconsin Division of Public Health (DPH), the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (DATCP), the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene (WSLH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have been tracking a multi-drug resistant (MDR) strain of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Heidelberg (Group B).  The reason for this close collaboration is the strong connection between human infections and recent bull calf purchases.  The purpose of this communication is to educate the veterinary community of the risk these MDR Salmonella Heidelberg pose to both cattle and people, provide testing options for diagnosis, and disinfection recommendations.

Currently, there are twelve confirmed human infections from seven Wisconsin counties in 2016. The median age for Wisconsin residents with Salmonella Heidelberg infections is 7 years old, and four individuals were hospitalized.  Upon interview, greater than 90% of the infected individuals reported purchasing Holstein bull calves from livestock dealers or sales barns. Many of these calves died shortly after becoming ill.  During 2015 and 2016, the WVDL has isolated several MDR Salmonella Heidelberg isolates from calves located in mostly Wisconsin, but isolation has also occurred from calves located outside of Wisconsin during 2015 and 2016.  Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole genome sequencing of 2016 isolates indicates that the human and bovine Salmonella Heidelberg isolates are very closely related, and may share a common source.  This strain of Salmonella Heidelberg is highly pathogenic and multi-drug resistant; only one antimicrobial drug is an effective treatment option for human cases and no effective options exist for cattle.  Individuals working with sick pre-weaned calves, particularly bull calves that have been recently purchased, are recommended to adhere to strict biosafety protocols and wash hands, change clothing, and clean affected areas and items frequently.  Children and immunocompromised individuals should limit their access to calves with diarrhea.  Additionally, any human diarrheal illnesses should be seen by a physician and reported to DPH if salmonellosis is confirmed.

Veterinarians suspecting salmonellosis, particularly infection caused by Salmonella Heidelberg, should submit fecal samples for Salmonella culture and/or PCR to the WVDL.  Results for confirmation of Salmonella are within 24-72 hours with serotyping taking an additional 24-72 hours.  Fecal samples should be collected in a leak-proof vial rather than glove, Whirl pack, or bag as these are more likely to leak.  Culture-positive Salmonella isolates will be serotyped and Salmonella Heidelberg isolates will be subject to antimicrobial susceptibility testing to confirm MDR status. WVDL staff veterinarians will contact submitting veterinarians upon isolation of this MDR Salmonella Heidelberg to discuss herd health, provide cleaning and disinfection recommendations and supply the veterinarians with an interview questionnaire to be filled out.

Cleaning and disinfection is absolutely necessary after confirmation of Salmonella as the cause of calf diarrhea or adult enteric disease.  This is particularly important for this particular MDR Salmonella strain, given the human and bovine health implications and lack of antimicrobials available.  Reinfection on the affected premise is highly likely and has been detected with this outbreak; therefore, it is highly recommended to perform environmental testing for Salmonella.  The WVDL has kits specific to this type of testing and cleaning and disinfection protocols that producers can use.

The WVDL, DATCP and DPH would like to increase surveillance for MDR Salmonella Heidelberg and encourages veterinarians to submit diagnostic samples when possible.  Veterinarians, please encourage producers to submit samples from suspect animals, particularly pre-weaned dairy calves that were recently purchased and die suddenly and unexpectedly.  Other state veterinary diagnostic laboratories have been notified of this outbreak and are prepared to culture diagnostic samples for Salmonella.  Salmonella Group B or Heidelberg isolates will be submitted to NVSL for PFGE and whole genome sequencing.  Cooperation between Wisconsin veterinarians, producers, and the human and animal health officials should reduce the incidence rates of salmonellosis in both humans and animals.

For more information please contact the following authorities:

Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at 608-262-5432 and Salmonella@wvdl.wisc.edu or info@wvdl.wisc.edu. The WVDL will respond to requests within 24-48 hours during the work week.

Wisconsin Division of Public Health at 608-267-7143 and DHSDPHEnterics@dhs.wisconsin.gov

Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection at 608-224-5012

 

Optimize Your Diagnostic Testing Using The Best Transport Media

PCR testingOptimize your diagnostic testing with the best media for sample transport

 

Transport MediaTo maximize the diagnostic potential of your diagnostic samples, the WVDL recommends using M6 viral transport media (red arrow) or sterile saline for any PCR testing.  Samples should be sent on ice overnight to WVDL using our low-cost UPS shipping. Aimes charcoal (yellow arrow) and Porta-cul agar gel media are best used for culture and antimicrobial sensitivity testing but in general, bacterial culture transport systems have inhibitory substances that may interfere with PCR testing.  Aimes and all other bacterial culture medias will NO LONGER be accepted for PCR tests.

It is also important to remember that wood and cotton swabs are not appropriate for PCR because they are manufactured with bleach, which damages nucleic acid.  Use polyester or Dacron with plastic sticks.  Please see our website to order media and collection supplies.

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