Call Us Free: 1-800-608-8387

Archive for the Uncategorized Category

WVDL Resumes Pathology Services at Barron Laboratory

WVDL’s Barron Laboratory Resumes Pathology Services

Dr. Holly Taylor Hired to Head Necropsy Service

 

Holly Taylor, DVM, DACVP

Holly Taylor, DVM, DACVP

Pathology Services Available – We are excited to announce that Pathology services have resumed at the WVDL Barron laboratory as of November 7th, 2016.  Please contact the Barron Laboratory with questions and to schedule necropsies. The Barron location does not accept live animals for necropsy.  Click Here for Contact Information

Welcome to Dr. Holly Taylor – WVDL-Barron would like to welcome Dr. Holly Taylor to our team. Dr. Taylor is from rural Pennsylvania, earning her BS in Animal Bioscience from Penn State (2009) and her DVM from the University of Tennessee (2013).  She completed her specialty training in anatomic pathology at the University of Missouri Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory in Columbia. Dr. Taylor’s specific areas of interest are bovine infectious diseases and poultry pathology.  Dr. Taylor looks forward to heading the necropsy service in Barron and working with our clients to further support animal health in northwestern Wisconsin.

Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Found in Northern Wisconsin

Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Found in Northern Wisconsin

 

Two cases of EEE have been diagnosed at WVDL this week. Both cases were from Northern Wisconsin in Crandon and Eagle River.  See below for the press release from DATCP.  Please contact the WVDL for any questions for testing or management of EEE in horses.

 

 

Equine encephalitis strikes in Northern Wisconsin 

Release Date: August 31, 2016

Media Contacts: Raechelle Belli, 608-224-5005

Bill Cosh, Communications Director, 608-224-5020

 

MADISON – A 2-month old unvaccinated filly from Forest County is the first reported Wisconsin horse to have become infected with Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) this year. The filly was euthanized on August 23.

 

“Northern Wisconsin has good mosquito habitat. It’s also been a very wet summer up north, which contributes to the problem,” says Dr. Julie McGwin, equine program veterinarian for the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection.

 

EEE is caused by a virus transmitted by mosquitoes, and may cause encephalitis, or inflammation of the brain, and is fatal to horses in 90 percent of cases. Symptoms in horses include depression, appetite loss, drooping eyelids and lower lip, fever, weakness, twitching, paralysis or lack of coordination, aimless wandering, circling and blindness.

 

The virus is not contagious between horses, but can be carried by mosquitos from an avian, or bird, host to horses and humans. While humans may also be infected by EEE, the virus does not pass directly between people and horses. Mosquitoes biting warm-blooded animals is the only route of transmission.

 

Horses that have not already been vaccinated this year for EEE or other mosquito-borne diseases are at greater risk. “Those horse owners who have vaccinated should check with their veterinarians to see whether a booster is appropriate,” McGwin said.

 

Horses that have never been vaccinated will need two doses two to four weeks apart, and the vaccine will take at least two weeks to build up enough antibodies to protect them. Vaccines will not protect horses that have already been infected when they receive the injections. Vaccines are available that protect against other strains of equine encephalitis along with EEE, and a separate West Nile virus vaccine is also available.

 

Besides vaccination, McGwin recommends taking other steps to limit horses’ exposure to mosquitoes during warm weather:

  • Remove items from surrounding property that could collect stagnant water such as old tires, tin cans, plastic containers.
  • Keep rain gutters clean and draining properly.
  • Clean and chlorinate swimming pools, outdoor saunas and hot tubs, and drain water from pool covers.
  • Turn wading pools and wheelbarrows upside down when not in use.
  • Empty and replace water in birdbaths at least once a week.
  • Consider keeping horses in the barn from dusk to dawn, when mosquitoes are most active.
  • Discuss using equine mosquito repellents with your veterinarian.

 

Wisconsin last experienced a major outbreak of EEE in 2011, with more than 30 cases mostly in north central Wisconsin. Since then, sporadic cases have occurred. Because EEE follows mosquito populations, it normally occurs beginning in mid- to late summer and remains a threat until the first killing frost.

 

Highly Pathogenic AI Virus Found in Alaska

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Found in Alaska as Part of Routine Surveillance

The USDA recently reported finding highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza (HPAI) in a wild mallard duck in Alaska.  No human infections have been reported with this finding and USDA has not reported an HPAI H5 infection in the USA since June of 2015.  Because Alaska is a common area for migratory birds in the flyways, bird owners and veterinarians should be at an increased awareness level for the upcoming migration south.  See below for the official release from USDA APHIS.

 

The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenzaBackyardpoultry (HPAI) in a wild mallard duck from a state wildlife refuge near Fairbanks, Alaska. CDC considers the risk to the general public from these HPAI H5 infections to be low.  No human infections with Eurasian H5 viruses have occurred in the United States. As a reminder, the proper handling and cooking of poultry and eggs to an internal temperature of 165˚F kills bacteria and viruses, including HPAI.

H5N2 HPAI has NOT been found in the U.S. – in either wild or commercial birds – since June 2015. However, anyone involved with poultry production from the small backyard to the large commercial producer should review their biosecurity activities to assure the health of their birds. To facilitate such a review, a biosecurity self-assessment and educational materials can be found at http://www.uspoultry.org/animal_husbandry/intro.cfm

The United States has the strongest AI surveillance program in the world, and USDA is working with its partners to actively look for the disease in commercial poultry operations, live bird markets and in migratory wild bird populations. The wild mallard duck was captured and a sample tested as part of ongoing wild bird surveillance. Since July 1, 2016, USDA and its partners have tested approximately 4,000 samples, with a goal to collect approximately 30,000 samples before July 1, 2017. Approximately 45,500 samples were tested during wild bird surveillance from July 1, 2015-June 30, 2016.

Since wild birds can be infected with these viruses without appearing sick, people should minimize direct contact with wild birds by using gloves. If contact occurs, wash your hands with soap and water and change clothing before having any contact with healthy domestic poultry and birds. Hunters should dress game birds in the field whenever possible and practice good biosecurity to prevent any potential disease spread. Biosecurity information is available at: https://www.aphis.usda.gov/publications/animal_health/2015/fsc_hpai_hunters.pdf.

In addition to practicing good biosecurity, all bird owners should prevent contact between their birds and wild birds and report sick birds or unusual bird deaths to State/Federal officials, either through their state veterinarian or through USDA’s toll-free number at 1-866-536-7593.  Additional information on biosecurity for backyard flocks can be found at http://healthybirds.aphis.usda.gov.

Additional background

Avian influenza (AI) is caused by an influenza type A virus which can infect poultry (such as chickens, turkeys, pheasants, quail, domestic ducks, geese and guinea fowl) and is carried by free flying waterfowl such as ducks, geese and shorebirds. AI viruses are classified by a combination of two groups of proteins: hemagglutinin or “H” proteins, of which there are 16 (H1–H16), and neuraminidase or “N” proteins, of which there are 9 (N1–N9). Many different combinations of “H” and “N” proteins are possible. Each combination is considered a different subtype, and can be further broken down into different strains. AI viruses are further classified by their pathogenicity (low or high)—the ability of a particular virus strain to produce disease in domestic chickens.

Canine Influenza Information for Veterinarians

Canine Influenza Information for Veterinarians

What is the time course of infection?
Specific infection studies have not been conducted with the new H3N2 Canine Influenza Virus strain circulating in the U.S., but based on other influenza viruses more generally, incubation period is expected to be 2-3 days, with clinical signs lasting 5-7 days and viral shedding extending to 21-24 days following the onset of clinical disease.

What general recommendations and information can I provide to clients?

  1. Vaccinate dogs when possible, despite unknown efficacy of current H3N8 commercial vaccines to prevent or diminish clinical disease with the new H3N2 virus. To the best of our knowledge, the original H3N8 virus has not disappeared, but is NOT circulating in Wisconsin.
  2. Maintain good general infection control principles when exposed to other dogs (e.g., limit direct dog-to-dog oronasal contact).
  3. Soap and water is very effective at inactivating virus.
  4. The virus will live in the environment for 24-48 hours in the majority of cases.
  5. Wash your hands and change your clothes if you work with or are exposed to sick dogs before handling your own pets at home. This also applies to veterinarians in practice.

What samples should be taken and how is testing conducted?

  1. The sample requested is a nasal swab with a non-cotton swab. Please use Dacron or synthetic swabs. Break the swab off into viral transport media.
  2. The Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (WVDL) offers broadly targeted matrix rt-PCR testing for CIV for veterinarians and their clients.
    1. The cost is  $33 with a $10 accession fee.
    2. WVDL also offers a respiratory disease rRT-PCR panel “RESPPNLK9.” This tests costs $100.10 with $10 accession fee and includes Canine distemper virus, Canine herpes virus, Canine parainfluenza virus, Canine respiratory coronavirus, Canine adenovirus 2, Influenza A, and Bordetella. All supplies required can be acquired from the WVDL within 24 hours and shipping via UPS is recommended.
    3. Please contact the WVDL with questions at 608-262-5432 or info@wvdl.wisc.edu

Tips for managing your patients:

  • Try to schedule dogs with compatible clinical signs at the end of the day to minimize exposure to your regular clinic in- and outpatients.
  • Have owners keep dogs outside the clinic until you are ready to see them.
  • Consider alternative paths in/out of the clinic, and generally keep dogs with clinical signs away from regular clinic in- and outpatients.

 

NOTE:  Please notify DATCP if you have a positive test from a diagnostic laboratory that is notWVDL.  The WVDL automatically notifies DATCP.

 

Order sample supplies:

http://www.wvdl.wisc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/PharyngealSwabKitOrder-Form.pdf

Shipping information:

http://www.wvdl.wisc.edu/index.php/shipping-information/

 

Additional Resources

American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.avma.org/KB/Resources/Reference/Pages/Canine-Influenza-Backgrounder.aspx

Centers for Disease Control
http://www.cdc.gov/flu/canine

USDA Confirms H5N2 Avian Influenza in Jefferson County

Highly Pathogenic H5N2 Avian Influenza Confirmed in Wisconsin Poultry Flock

CDC considers the risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections in wild birds, backyard flocks and commercial poultry, to be low

WASHINGTON, April 13, 2015 — The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza (HPAI) in a commercial layer flock in Jefferson County, Wisconsin.  The flock of 200,000 chickens is located within the Mississippi flyway where this strain of avian influenza has previously been identified. CDC considers the risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections in wild birds, backyard flocks and commercial poultry, to be low.  No human infections with the virus have been detected at this time.

Samples from the chicken flock, which experienced increased mortality, were tested at the Missouri Department of Agriculture Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory and the APHIS National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) in Ames, Iowa confirmed the findings. NVSL is the only internationally recognized AI reference laboratory in the United States.   APHIS is working closely with the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (DATCP) on a joint incident response. State officials quarantined the premises and birds on the property will be depopulated to prevent the spread of the disease. Birds from the flock will not enter the food system.

The United States has the strongest AI surveillance program in the world.  As part of the existing USDA avian influenza response plans, Federal and State partners as well as industry are responding quickly and decisively to these outbreaks by following these five basic steps: 1) Quarantine – restricting movement of poultry and poultry-moving equipment into and out of the control area; 2) Eradicate – humanely euthanizing the affected flock(s); 3) Monitor region – testing wild and domestic birds in a broad area around the quarantine area; 4)  Disinfect – kills the virus in the affected flock locations; and 5) Test – confirming that the poultry farm is AI virus-free.  USDA also is working with its partners to actively look and test for the disease in commercial poultry operations, live bird markets and in migratory wild bird populations.

The Wisconsin Department of Health is working directly with poultry workers at the affected facility to ensure that they are taking the proper precautions. As a reminder, the proper handling and cooking of poultry and eggs to an internal temperature of 165 ˚F kills bacteria and viruses.

USDA will include the confirmation information in routine updates to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), and will notify international trading partners of this finding as appropriate.  OIE trade guidelines call on countries to base trade restrictions on sound science and, whenever possible, limit restrictions to those animals and animal products within a defined region that pose a risk of spreading disease of concern.

These virus strains can travel in wild birds without them appearing sick. People should avoid contact with sick/dead poultry or wildlife. If contact occurs, wash your hands with soap and water and change clothing before having any contact with healthy domestic poultry and birds.

All bird owners, whether commercial producers or backyard enthusiasts, should continue to practice good biosecurity, prevent contact between their birds and wild birds, and report sick birds or unusual bird deaths to State/Federal officials, either through their state veterinarian or through USDA’s toll-free number at 1-866-536-7593.  Additional information on biosecurity for backyard flocks can be found at http://healthybirds.aphis.usda.gov.

 
Additional background

Avian influenza (AI) is caused by an influenza type A virus which can infect poultry (such as chickens, turkeys, pheasants, quail, domestic ducks, geese and guinea fowl) and is carried by free flying waterfowl such as ducks, geese and shorebirds. AI viruses are classified by a combination of two groups of proteins: hemagglutinin or “H” proteins, of which there are 16 (H1–H16), and neuraminidase or “N” proteins, of which there are 9 (N1–N9). Many different combinations of “H” and “N” proteins are possible. Each combination is considered a different subtype, and can be further broken down into different strains. AI viruses are further classified by their pathogenicity (low or high)— the ability of a particular virus strain to produce disease in domestic chickens.

The HPAI H5N8 virus originated in Asia and spread rapidly along wild bird migratory pathways during 2014, including the Pacific flyway. In the Pacific flyway, the HPAI H5N8 virus has mixed with North American avian influenza viruses, creating new mixed-origin viruses. These mixed-origin viruses contain the Asian-origin H5 part of the virus, which is highly pathogenic to poultry. The N parts of these viruses came from North American low pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

USDA has identified two mixed-origin viruses in the Pacific Flyway: the HPAI H5N2 virus and new HPAI H5N1 virus. The new HPAI H5N1 virus is not the same virus as the HPAI H5N1 virus found in Asia, Europe and Africa that has caused some human illness. Only the HPAI H5N2 virus has been detected in the Pacific, Mississippi and Central Flyways.

Detailed analysis of the virus is underway in cooperation with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.   For more information about the ongoing avian influenza disease incidents visit the APHIS website. More information about avian influenza can be found on the USDA avian influenza page. More information about avian influenza and public health is available on the CDC website.

Questions about APHIS programs and services?   Contact Us

 

WVDL’s Carlson Retires After 30 Years of Service

Mark Carlson Retires from WVDL After Over 30 Years of Service

Dr. Mark Carlson Diagnostic Pathologist, Barron Lab DVM, Univ. of Minnesota, 1978

Dr. Mark Carlson
Diagnostic Pathologist, Barron Lab
DVM, Univ. of Minnesota, 1978

Dr. Mark Carlson, a pathologist at the WVDL in Barron, retired on January 7th, 2015.  Dr. Carlson started with an earlier iteration of the WVDL in June 1984 and has worked for the pathology sections in both Madison and Barron.  All of us at the WVDL want to thank Dr. Carlson for his 30+ years of exceptional service to the laboratory and its clients in and around the State of Wisconsin.  Mark’s long time work through the evolution of the WVDL has earned him the respect of clients and coworkers.

Mark and his wife, Rene, are excited to finish and spend a significant amount of time on their sailboat in the Caribbean Sea.

Smooth sailing!

 

USDA Confirms H5 Avian Influenza in Washington State Wild Birds

Please contact the WVDL with any questions regarding avian influenza in your flock or individual birds.  Our diagnostic laboratory is fully equipped to test for avian influenza with rapid turn-around time.  No immediate public health concern has arisen from this outbreak.

 

NOTICE: USDA Confirms H5 Avian Influenza in Washington State Wild Birds

H5N2 Found in Northern Pintail Ducks and H5N8 Found in Captive Gyrfalcons

 

The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic (HPAI) H5 avian influenza in wild birds in Whatcom County, Washington. Two separate virus strains were identified: HPAI H5N2 in northern pintail ducks and HPAI H5N8 in captive Gyrfalcons that were fed hunter-killed wild birds.  Neither virus has been found in commercial poultry anywhere in the United States.

There is no immediate public health concern with either of these avian influenza viruses. Both H5N2 and H5N8 viruses have been found in other parts of the world and have not caused any human infection to date.

The finding in Whatcom County was quickly reported and identified due to increased surveillance for avian influenza in light of the HPAI H5N2 avian influenza affecting commercial poultry in British Columbia, Canada.

Washington State, USDA, and other Federal partners are working jointly on additional surveillance and testing of birds in the nearby area.

All bird owners, whether commercial producers or backyard enthusiasts, are encouraged to practice good biosecurity, prevent contact between their birds and wild birds, and to report sick birds or unusual bird deaths to State/Federal officials, either through your state veterinarian or through USDA’s toll-free number at 1-866-536-7593. Additional information on biosecurity for backyard flocks can be found at healthybirds.aphis.usda.gov

USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service sent this bulletin at 12/16/2014 03:33 PM EST

 

 

Diagnostic Submission Guidelines for Enteric Disease

Diagnostic Submission Guidelines: Enteric Disease        

Dr. Donald Sockett Veterinary Microbiologist DVM, Univ. of Guelph, 1981 PhD, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1991 Diplomate, A.C.V.I.M.

Dr. Donald Sockett
Veterinary Microbiologist
DVM, Univ. of Guelph, 1981
PhD, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1991
Diplomate, A.C.V.I.M.

Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory
December, 2014
by Dr. Donald Sockett

The best samples are those that are collected within 4-8 hours of the animal’s death. Delays in sample collection decrease the probability of obtaining useful diagnostic information. Veterinarians should submit both fresh and formalin fixed tissues from any organ that has gross lesions. See chart below for information on tissue types and how tissues should be collected and submitted to WVDL.

*Since the formalin jars tend to leak; please place the formalin jar inside a Ziploc® bag. If it is not possible to place the tissues in formalin at the time of sample collection, WVDL staff will do it for you. Please keep in mind the tissue samples will be more autolyzed and less diagnostic for histopathology when formalin fixation is delayed. A 2 x 2 x 1 cm piece of tissue from all the organs listed below should be placed in formalin. The ratio should be 9 parts formalin to 1 part tissue for proper fixation. The WVDL recommends using a 16-ounce wide-mouthed jar that contains 8 ounces of 10% buffered formalin (Fischer catalog # 23-426-797).

Publication1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shipping Requirements

  • Veterinarians should completely fill out the WVDL General Submission Form which includes the age of the animal.  An electronic copy is available at www.wvdl.wisc.edu. Click on the forms link to download the submission form.
  • The laboratory should receive the samples within 24-36 hours. See our website for discounted, expedited shipping options.
  • Package the samples with a sufficient number of ice packs to ensure they remain cold during shipment.
  • Clients should schedule shipments to avoid weekend and holiday delivery of samples to the laboratory.

 

WVDL Staff Member Returns from Island of Grenada

Allison.nutmeg

Allison on a hike. She is holding nutmeg from the Spice Island (what the Island of Grenada is called) that has just been picked.

Klein Returns to WVDL After Eight Week Training Project on the Island of Grenada

Finishing up her eight-week training project at St. George’s University on the Island of Grenada, Allison Klein has had an excellent experience and is ready to come home to Madison. Allison is a histotechnologist at the WVDL and has been helping train a new histotechnologist in the Pathology Department at the St. George’s University Veterinary School.
Allison reports the training has gone very well and the H&E, along with new special stains, look great heading off to the pathologists. One of the problems they have had is getting the microtome fully functional. Staff has been hampered by significant time delays in receiving new shipments of replacement parts and blades to the island of Grenada, which is near Trinidad and Tobago.
Klein says, “I’ve learned a lot about not only histology, but also about the island and the people that live here. I’ll be excited to tell you all about it when I get back!”

 

DSC00304

Jessica Holland, a Medical Illustrator at SGU, is being trained in histology techniques at the hood.

A new histotechnician ata SGU, Veronica Alexander is shown here at the embedding station.

A new histotechnician at SGU, Veronica Alexander, is shown here at the embedding station.

Dr. Keshaw Tiwari practicing sectioning at the microtome.

Dr. Keshaw Tiwari practicing sectioning at the microtome.

 

Calf Maintenance Requirements in Cold Weather

Low Temperatures and Negative Energy Balance in Calves

M.J. Behr DVM, D.C. Sockett DVM, PhD, Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory
T.J. Earleywine PhD, Director of Nutrition, Land O’ Lakes Animal Milk Products

Cold weather has arrived in the upper Midwest. Calf raisers know that cold temperatures increase the calf’s maintenance requirements for energy, but many do not know that the
Calf maintenance requirements also increase for protein and fat-soluble vitamins as well as energy, if the calf is ill from conditions like scours and pneumonia. Optimizing nutrition of sick calves can make the difference between a dead and a healthy calf.

It is important for livestock producers and veterinarians to understand that when the ambient temperature drops to 15 °F, feeding 3 quarts of milk (12.5% total solids) or a 22% protein, 20% fat milk replacer powder (12.5% total solids) twice a day will provide an 88 lb. calf with enough nutrition for less than 0.75 lbs/day of growth.  However, if the calf is stressed further (draft, wet or dirty hair coat, develops scours, pneumonia etc.), there is insufficient energy and protein in the diet to meet her needs, and she will begin losing weight. Since calves are born with roughly 3-4% of body weight as fat, they will die if the negative energy balance continues for more than 3-5 days. Calf scours is a common problem on US dairy operations: therefore, winter feeding programs should be formulated to take into account the increased protein, fat-soluble vitamins and energy demands caused by calf scours. Also, calves should be provided with a jacket and kept in a dry, draft-free environment that is bedded with straw deep enough to cover their legs. Calves should be offered a highly palatable calf starter that is high in protein (18-22%) and energy beginning at 2-3 days of age and have access to free-choice (low sodium/not softened) warm water within 30 minutes of being fed milk or milk replacer.

Winter Feeding Program

Since ruminants do not metabolize fat as efficiently as non-ruminants, just providing more fat in the diet is the least satisfactory way of providing additional nutrition to the calf. The diet must be consistent (less than 1% daily variation in percent total solids) and have enough energy and protein so the calf can have efficient, lean growth, adequate immune function and healing of damaged tissue caused by events like scours or pneumonia. The dairy producer can pick one of the following three options:

  • Continue to feed the calves three quarts of milk or milk replacer twice a day but increase the total solids content from 12.5 to 15%. To avoid problems, producers need to work closely with their dairy calf nutritionist if they choose this option.
  • Continue feeding the calves twice a day but increase the volume of milk or milk replacer per feeding from 3 to 4 quarts.
  • Feed the calves three quarts of milk or milk replacer three times a day instead of twice a day. There should be at least a 13-14 hour interval between the first and third feeding. This is the best option because calves do better when they are fed three times a day instead of twice a day.

 

Page 1 of 212